Nowadays around the globe air pollution has become such a severe threat that the term “Air Pollution” has crept into common parlance. And for all of us it is necessary to know what are the causes of air pollution, what are the effects of air pollution and how to stop or prevent air pollution.
Air Pollution Causes, Effects and Prevention

Air is an essential element of life on earth, which surrounds the earth in the form of air circles. Due to this, animals and animals get oxygen, which is the basis of life and from this the vegetation gets carbon-dioxide, which nourishes it.


It is the air that holds the humidity and distributes it. The air chamber is like a blanket, due to which the temperature will be high or very low. It is the air system that protects us from ultraviolet rays and destroys meteors by burning them.

The atmosphere is basically composed of different types of gases. Air is not an isolated substance, but a proportional mixture of many gases. The ratio of gases in it is so balanced that slight interference in it affects the entire system or cycle and it directly affects the living world of the earth.


What Air Pollution is?

External effects (natural or human) on the gases present in the air are responsible for air pollution. Before a detailed discussion of air pollution, it is necessary to know the air structure. Nitrogen and oxygen make up most of the air, with other gases being about one percent.

This structure of air is normally uniform everywhere but their ratio starts to change with height. In addition, the amount of dust particles and vapor also starts to end with height. Due to external interference in the above structure or mixture of certain other gases and substances, its equilibrium starts to decrease, consequently air pollution starts.

Vayu, the base of the living system, is a unique gift of nature, which is everywhere. Life depends on oxygen present in air. Animals and plants take oxygen from the atmosphere and expel carbon-dioxide, which green plants consume and a balanced cycle goes on.

But this equilibrium comes at a time when smoke and other microscopic particles emanating from industries, vehicles and other domestic uses, toxic gases from various types of chemicals, dust mites, radioactive substances etc. enter the air for health Not only do they make them harmful to the whole world.

This is called air pollution or air pollution. As Maxwell has written - "Excessive misuse of our atmosphere has become a health hazard and a threat to life, resulting in the destruction of plants and other organisms in areas polluted by toxic gas, dust and smoke."

Air pollution starts at the same time when unwanted elements and gases are absorbed in the air, which destroys its natural form and makes it more likely to cause harm. "Air pollution consists of gases, solid and liquid particles in the form of pollution which are of the organic and inorganic category."


The World Health Organization has defined air pollution as written - Air pollution is a situation where the concentration of contaminants in the external ambient air system increases to harm the human and the environment. In fact, air pollution is caused by such changes in the physical and chemical nature of air, which harm not only humans but also natural and cultural wealth.

Air pollution is not a new process but many natural causes like eruption of volcano, mixing of soil particles in the air by strong winds or wildfire have been happening since ancient times. Ever since humans started using fire, pollution has started, sand blowing from pastoralism, air polluted by mining, or the spread of microorganisms from dirt to air has been there since ancient times.

But till then this was not a problem, because the population was limited, the requirements were low, fuel use was low, there was enough expansion of natural forests due to which the polluted substances would automatically get dissolved in the environment, they did not cause any harm. , Because the atmospheric process has the unique ability to be automatically pure and balanced. But industrial, scientific and technological progress made this math wrong, because human began to expand the residual material in the air system at a rapid rate which is the root cause of air pollution.

What Are the Causes of Air Pollution?

The main reasons for the rise of air pollution in the current century are as follows:

i. Excess development of industries and toxic substances and gases emanating from them.
ii. Extreme increase in use of vehicles and smoke released from them.
iii. Increase in the use of chemicals and their mixing in the atmosphere.
iv. Increasing the use of petrochemicals.
v. Excess concentration of population in cities.
vi. The constant destruction of forests.
vii. Excessive accumulation of residual content.
viii. Nuclear weapons test.
ix. Increased use of ammunition used in war or in trials.
x. Polluted material released by satellites used in celestial research.
xi. Use / testing of biological and chemical weapons.
xii. Uncontrolled mining, increase in air transport and other polluting factors dissolve in the air.

For the appropriate reasons, in the present century, air pollution has not only increased but if this process continues, there will be more increase. A detailed discussion of the sources of air pollution is required to know the proper nature of air pollution.

What Are the Sources of Air Pollution?

Air pollution is the result of a variety of sources that collectively pollute the air system.

Air pollutants can be classified as follows :

1. Depending on the Sources of Origin:

Depending on the origin, they can be divided into two parts -
(i) natural,
(ii) human.
On this basis, human sources are again divided into two parts -
(i) primary,
(ii) secondary.

Primary pollutants are those which are released into the air system by various human activities from land sources, including particles released by combustion, industrial residues, particles generated by mining operations, etc. Secondary pollution, on the other hand, is the result of chemical action, which arises through various types of gas and photochemistry, becoming dangerous pollution factors.


i. What Are the Natural Sources of Air Pollution?

Some natural actions also result in air pollution, although it is limited and regional. The emergence of a volcano in it is a major natural activity that pollutes the area of ​​the eruption area.

At the time of volcanic eruption, huge amounts of smoke, ash and rock fragments and various types of gases enter the atmosphere at high speed and there is an increase in pollution. Pollution is also less if it is a limited time and if it goes on continuously it is more polluted. Similarly, the amount of pollution depends on the power of the excreta.

Forest fires (which sometimes spread over thousands of square kilometers) also cause air pollution as it causes smoke and ash particles to diffuse. This type of fire also occurs in grasslands.

Due to strong winds and blind storms, the dust particles spread in the air are formed due to pollution. Similarly, sea salt particles and minerals also add to air pollution. In the marshy state, 'methane gas' causes pollution due to rotting of substances.

Hydrogen compounds and pollen particles from some plants are also the cause of pollution. Fog is a major cause of pollution. Air pollution from natural sources is limited and less harmful because nature itself balances it by various actions.

ii. What Are the Human Sources of Air Pollution :

It would not be an exaggeration to say that human beings have been polluting the air system or the air with various actions and continues to do so. Diversified use of energy, industry, transport, increase in use of chemicals etc. While providing many facilities to human beings, there has also given rise to crisis in the form of air pollution.

The various human sources of air pollution can be classified as follows:

(1) By combustion:
(i) combustion in domestic works
(ii) Combustion in vehicles
(iii) Combustion for thermal power energy
(iv) Other combustion activities

(2) By industries
(3) By agricultural operations
(4) Use of solvents
(5) By radioactivity


(1) By Combustion Actions:
Man uses energy to fulfill his various needs. From its initial requirement to preparing food, running industries, generating power, operating vehicles, etc., it uses energy, and by this action various types of gases and micro particles enter the air and pollute it. . The combustion process mainly includes combustion in domestic works, combustion in vehicles and combustion for thermal power.

They cause various types of air pollution:

(i) Combustion in Domestic Works:
Fuel, such as wood, coal, cow dung, kerosene, gas, etc. are used in regular household work such as making food, heating water, etc. In this burning process, gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon mono oxide, sulfur dioxide are produced which pollute the air.

Oxygen is used in this combustion process, so there is a lack of oxygen in the air. Incomplete combustion also produces many hydrocarbon and cyclic pyrene compounds, which cause pollution. In a country like India, traditional fuels like wood, cow dung, farm waste, bushes, weeds etc. are mostly used in domestic works. Hence, air is relatively more polluted here.

(ii) Combustion in Vehicles:
In the present era, there has been a lot of progress in the field of transport, as a result, unprecedented growth in the number of means of fast transport such as car-motor, torque, scooter, motorcycle, diesel powered rail, airplane etc. not only in developed countries but in developing countries Has also occurred.

Due to this, where the distances have been reduced today, the crisis of air pollution is increasing day by day. All the energy driven vehicles get power from internal combustion and together with the smoke comes out which contains toxic gases and harmful pollution elements.

Various oxides of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are found in them, which enter the atmosphere. The smoke emitted from them also contains harmful carbon mono oxide and lead particles which increase air pollution.

Fog is also born from nitrogen oxides released from petrol and diesel, which reacts with hydrocarbon in sunlight to give rise to deadly photochemical Dhoom Fog. In this context, it is necessary to mention the 'London Smog' in 1952, where this kind of fog raged for five days, thousands of people died and hundreds suffered from breathing and heart disease.

About 42 percent of total US air pollution occurs only by transportation. In cities like Tokyo, air pollution in vehicles is so high that many times traffic policemen have to take oxygen.

Compared to developed countries, the number of vehicles in our country is less but air pollution is not less because the engines of the vehicles here are old, they are not maintained properly and the normal vehicles are indifferent to the environmental pollution caused by them.


(iii) Combustion for Thermal Power Energy:
Where thermal energy is obtained by burning coal, the risk of air pollution is increased because in this process excessive coal is burnt. Consequently, polluting gases such as sulfur-dioxide, carbon oxides are spread in the atmosphere, in addition to coal ash and micro particles of carbon are spread in the atmosphere around it.

The burning of low sulfur coal at a 200 MW thermal power station spreads about 50 tonnes of sulfur-dioxide and even more ash. The environment of the city is being highly polluted by the thermal power station set up in the past years in Kota Nagar in Rajasthan.

(iv) Other Combustion Activities:
Burning of residual waste, fireworks, testing of firearms, etc. in addition to the appropriate combustion operations described also increase air pollution.
(2) By Industries:
While transport is responsible for air pollution, industry on the other hand. In fact, air pollution is the result of industrial revolution. On one hand there is combustion in the industries, on the other hand the smoke of various substances which get out of the industrial chimneys and dissolve in the air system and result in air pollution.

Gases released from chemical industries not only cause air pollution but sometimes also lead to death due to inadvertence, as happened on December 2 and 3, 1984 from a gas leak in Bhopal. This resulted from the leakage of isomethyl-isocyanide gas from the US-based Union Carbide Company's Bhopal-based pesticide-making factory, which combines with water to form sulfuric acid.

This poison gas cloud killed more than 3000 people in one part of Bhopal and thousands of others are still suffering from blindness, breathing, skin diseases etc. Some industries like textile, paper, sugar, fertilizer, oil purifier, metal industry, chemical industry etc. also have relatively more air pollution.
Gases, steam particles, etc. emanating from these industries are the main causes of air pollution. Among these are air pollution factors like hydrogen, sulfide, sulfur-dioxide, carbon dioxide, carvan-mono-oxide, lead, arsenic fluoride, beryllium, cadmium, etc.

The city of Los Angeles is always clouded by smoke due to industries. In Japan, when air pollution is high, children are forged on the mouth while going to school. Although air pollution by industries in India is less than that of industrialized countries, in some cities where there are enough industries, its level is threatening health.

Similarly, acid rain is also a dangerous type of air pollution. Acidic precipitation occurs when sulfur-dioxide (SO 2 ) reaches the air to form sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), which falls in the form of fine particles that contain more sulfate ion. PH of this type of water Is less than 5 and 6 which is normal water. 3 to 5 p.h in rainwater in Europe and American industrial cities. found . This means there is 100 to 1000 times more acidity in the water there. This type of water is harmful for both humans and vegetation.
(3) Through Agricultural Operations:
At present, air pollution has also started due to the process of agriculture. This pollution is due to excessive use of pesticides. In agriculture, poisonous medicines are sprayed to prevent various types of diseases, sometimes by spraying helicopters or small planes.

This type of spraying gets the chemicals absorbed into the air. Many presses from them which DDT Produces are very harmful for health and many diseases are caused by them. Similarly, after extracting crops in the fields many times the remaining part is burnt, this causes air pollution.
(4) Use of Solvents:
The solvents that are used to make many types of paints, sprays, polishes, etc. are spread in the air because they contain hydrocarbons and pollute the air. Solvents are also used in various chemistries which sometimes inadvertently reach the air during use and pollute it.
(5) By Radioactivity:
While nuclear power is being used to gain immense power, on the one hand, inadvertence becomes not only air pollution but a cause of death. Today, nuclear power plants are installed in many countries of the world, although adequate security arrangements are made in them that nuclear fuel or radioactive materials are not allowed to go out, but sometimes radioactivity comes out due to technical and human reasons. In a country like the former Soviet Union, thousands of people died due to the leakage of the Chernobyl nuclear plant. Not only this, when nuclear bombs are tested, nuclear dust reaches the air chamber. Due to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the atmosphere there was so polluted that some of its remains can still be seen. In fact, the progress that humans have made in the fields of industry, transport, energy etc. is having direct and indirect effects in the form of air pollution. Today this crisis is deepening on the whole world.

2. Based on Chemical Organization :

Organic pollutants and inorganic pollutants can be divided into two categories. According to another division, they are divided into solid, liquid and gaseous.

3. Based on Size and Density :

There are two categories of air pollutants:
(a) Specific Source:
Those related to large industries and other establishments, such as major industrial units, steam power plants, thermal plants etc.
(b ) Various sources:
It consists of automobiles, smoke exhausted from public and private use, evaporation of petrol and other chemicals and a variety of sprays, paints, small industries, petrol and diesel from various vehicles, etc. Air pollution is also caused by the filth of the cities, the rotting and rotting of dead animals.

4. Depending on the Source Type:

Pollutants are divided as follows:
(a) by combustion in vehicles,
(b) By steady combustion,
(c) By industrial process,
(d) solid waste materials and
(e) from other sources. For the convenience of the study, air pollutants are divided into natural and human categories and their brief discussion is being presented.


Effects of Air Pollution

Air pollution affects various ways. But the effect of air pollution is so widespread that it needs special mention. Air pollution affects not only humans but also vegetation and other organisms as well as other aspects of climate and environment. The proper explanation of these is as follows:
The effect of air pollution is local, regional and worldwide.

What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Local and Regional Weather?

(A) Effect on vision.
(B) Density of sunlight.
(C) On the amount of water rain.
(D) Acid rain.

What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on World Wide Concern?

(A) Changes in natural climate,
(B) increase in carbon dioxide,
(C) increase in various pollutants,
(D) ozone layer sparing, etc.

In fact, air pollution is a result of the industrial and technological civilization of the present era, which is not only making the ecosystem unbalanced but is causing various harmful effects, but is also becoming a threat to humans and other organisms and vegetation etc.

What Are the Effects of Air Pollution?

1. What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health?

Humans use an average of 8,000 liters of air in and out to sustain their lives. Therefore, if there is impurity in the air or it contains pollutants, then it reaches the body by breathing and affects it in various ways and becomes the cause of many terrible diseases.

As A.J.D. Villiers has clarified in his review of the study that- "There is ample evidence that airborne pollution affects the health inversely in varying amounts." This leads to higher mortality, higher chances of diseases and excessive respiratory diseases."

Air pollution has the greatest effect on the respiratory system of humans because the air absorbed with breathing does not dissolve in the blood plasma, but mixes with hemoglobin and travels throughout the body.

If the air polluting particles are somewhat bigger in size then they stop at the nasal gates but the microscopic granules reach the lungs and reach different parts of the body and cause diseases. Polluted air causes respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, bilinosis, throat pain, pneumonia, lung cancer, etc.

In addition to respiratory diseases, excess of sulfur-dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the air causes cancer, heart disease, diabetes etc. Sulfur-dioxide causes a disease called amphoecyma, a pranaleva disease that causes thousands of people to die prematurely in America.

Lead particles present in the smoke of vehicles reach the body and cause diseases like liver, alimentary canal, brain disorders in children, melting of bones. Multi-centered hydrocarbons also cause cancer. In this context, mention of 'Dhoom Kuhra' is necessary, due to which hundreds of people have died so far. It mainly dominates the industries and cities with a lot of transport.

It contains a mixture of sulfur-dioxide and nitrogen oxide which is not only harmful to health but also causes death. As the air pollution is increasing in the present world, the number of diseases and deaths due to spread is also increasing.

Air pollution has an impact on human health respectively, which depends on the amount and density of pollution. Its effect is not even reflected in the initial state, then the human begins to experience it, then it starts to suffer in breathing or in other organs.

If this sequence continues, the disease increases and it becomes the cause of death in the last stage. In fact, if we want to be safe from air pollution, then the effort should be that it should not be pollution.


2. What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Vegetation?

Air pollution also has an adverse effect on vegetation, especially acid rain, smog, ozone, carbon mono-oxide, sulfur-dioxide, fluoride, etc. Plants get less light due to air pollution and hence have an adverse effect on their photosynthesis activity. Plants that thrive in the foggy area grow less. Ozone and nitrate oxide produced due to photochemical smog are highly harmful to the vegetation, due to which their leaves become discolored and fall white.

Similarly, beauty flowers and plants are sensitive to air pollution. Trees, vegetables, fruits, flowers are all affected by air pollution. Due to sulfur-dioxide, the leaves become colorless and become black and suffer.

In the area of high air pollution, the plants do not mature, the buds wither and the fruits also do not grow fully. Smoke emanating from vehicles is harmful to vegetation. Similarly, metal particles from metal industries like zinc, smelter etc. have adverse effects on vegetation.

Some plants are also of this type which can be called 'pollution inducing plants'. The pollution marks on these plants are clearly visible from which pollution is detected. These types of plants are - Salvia, Dahlia, Chid, Banyan, Genia, Glendulus etc.

3. What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Animals and Insects?

Air pollution also has harmful effects on animals and other organisms like humans. Organisms take air, so from pollution, toxins get into the body which are harmful. Due to the chloride compound falling on the feed consumed by animals, they reach their body and cause fluorosis in bones and teeth. Many types of insects like bees, moths etc. die from pollution. The reverse effect of air pollution is also seen on birds.

4. What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Atmosphere and Climate?

(i) What Are the Effect of Air Pollution on Ozone layer?
The 'ozone layer shield' located in the air system is important for human life because it protects the life of the people by stopping the 'para violet rays' coming from the sun like a shield. These harmful rays come on the terrain, causing skin cancer in our body, causing cataracts in the eyes and increasing blindness and this also causes side effects on water-animals and crops.

The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is very less, it is also mostly in the stratosphere ie 24 to 48 km. Is at the height of. Ozone is formed by the ultraviolet radiation of the sun, the light decomposition of oxygen molecules, and absorbs about 99 percent of the atmosphere's violet solar rays.

Normally ozone formation goes on in a natural and balanced manner, but certain pollutants interfere with it, then the ozone layer becomes 'porous' or its quantity starts to decrease which is the cause of crisis for the whole earth's life. It is made. In the year 1985, many scientists gave a sensational report that in the month of September in the air system of the Antarctica continent, the amount of ozone is reduced, then it comes back to level again. Subsequent experiments confirmed the information that an 'ozone hole' was developing. The reason for this has been said by scientists to be astonishing increase in the amount of chlorine compounds in the ozone layer, which is high in fluorine compound elements.

Chlorine starts dissolving ozone after a certain amount of time. Chlorofluorol carbon is the largest addition to destroy the ozone layer. Chlorofluoro carbon is a chemical compound that contains atoms of chlorine and fluorine in addition to carbon and hydrogen atoms.

These are industrially important compounds which are used as refrigerants. If the production of these compounds continues at the current rate, in the next hundred years, the ozone in the atmosphere will decrease by 7 to 13 percent. Its effect will be highly harmful on public life.
(ii) What is Green House Effect?
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is continuously increasing, increasing the temperature. According to scientists estimates, the average temperature of the Earth has increased by one degree Celsius in the last 50 years. If it increases more than 3.6 °, then the huge icebergs of the Arctic and Antarctica will melt and the sea level will rise. As the amount of carbon-dioxide increases, it absorbs the rays of the sun, thereby heating the atmosphere.

This is called the 'green house effect'. At the conference held in Toronto in June 1988, scientists expressed concern about the greenhouse effect and its associated dangers. The gases causing the greenhouse effect are carbon-dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon, nitrogen oxide, ozone.

Burning of petrol and gaseous elements, smoke emanating from industries are its main sources. This type of pollution causes temperature to rise and drought and famine also occur in many places. Continuous destruction of vegetation is also increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


(iii) What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on Weather?
Air pollution has a great impact on the local weather. They also have an effect on clouds, temperature and rainfall. Fog filtering over industrial cities is a result of air pollution. A 'dome of fog' is formed on the cities and due to the effect of wind it starts flowing as another stream. The winds also affect the local weather.

A special type of snow nucleus particle in the smoke of steel mills increases the chance of rain. Dust and fog also have an effect on local thermal radiation. At the same time, air pollution also has an effect on the vision, that is, it decreases.

5. What Are the Other Effects of Air Pollution?

Apart from the above effects, air pollution also affects many other things like rust, paper, cloth, marble etc. Hydrogen sulfide reduces the brightness of silver and makes lead objects black.

Ozone causes cracks in the rubber. Many monuments and ancient buildings are also damaged by air pollution. It would be appropriate to refer to the Taj Mahal controversy in this regard. The Taj Mahal made of white marble in Agra is a historic and beautiful building.

In 1972, an oil refinery was set up in Mathura. At the same time, it was feared that the carbon-dioxide mixed in the smoke emitted from the rainwater would fall as sulfuric acid, which would have an effect on the marble here.

A committee was also appointed in this regard, scientists also presented their views, but this apprehension cannot be considered ruthless. It is clear from the above description that air pollution is a sequestering poison that is affecting not only humans but all living beings.

Its effect may be limited now, but if not enough efforts are made in this direction, it will reach a state where destruction will be destruction and we will become helpless. Therefore, it is necessary to take appropriate measures to prevent and control the problem of air pollution.

How to Stop Air Pollution?

Two types of efforts are necessary to control air pollution, first - the air pollution that has already happened should be eliminated or controlled so that it does not have a harmful effect and second - such measures should be taken so that there is no air pollution at all.

In fact, technological and scientific progress has given air pollution and this will solve the problem. In this direction, research work is being done all over the world and efforts are also being made. While on the one hand there is a need for technical means to control air pollution (which are generally more expensive), on the other hand it is necessary to make it a general mass movement, so that every person in the world can become its partner.

Air pollution is increasing in the developed countries of the world and they have become aware of it, but the developing countries should think that today this problem is in their initial stage, it can become serious and become destructive tomorrow.

Some of the measures to control air pollution are:

1. To prevent air pollution, deforestation should be stopped and adequate plantation is necessary. It is a general opinion that if 33% of an area is covered with forests, the loss from air pollution will be minimal there.
Ecological balance can be created through forests. It is necessary to develop a 'green box' around every city and village. Similarly, if there is a 'green box' around the industries, it will reduce pollution.

2. It is necessary to pay attention to many facts regarding vehicles. Such as:
(i) The engine of vehicles is not old.
(ii) Sieve and back flammers should be applied to the smoke generated from the vehicles.
(iii) The engine of vehicles should be well tuned.
(iv) Such improvements should be made in the vehicles that they do not contain pollutants or they are new.
(v) Pollution can be reduced by adding additive substances to diesel and removing lead and sulfur from petrol.

3. Electric locomotives should be used in place of coal vehicles in excessive use.

4. It is necessary to end the use of conventional fuels (wood, coal, cow dung) etc. If it is not finished, then the 'smokeless' stove should be used.

5. Many enterprises such as brick kiln, pottery cooking etc. should be set away from the population.

6. It is necessary to have immediate control over the fire and fire scams in the forests.

7. Industries are also a major cause of pollution, it is necessary to take certain measures in relation to them. Such as:
(i) Establishment of industries should be away from densely populated parts and cities.
(ii) Before setting up industries, attention should be paid to the direction of the wind that it is not coming towards the population regularly.
(iii) Before the start of industries, all the methods should be informed by which they will control pollution.
(iv) The height of the chimneys of the industries should be as per the prescribed norms.
(v) Less polluting technology should be used in industries.
(vi) The harmful substances from the industries should be treated so that they do not remain pollutants.

8. Contamination can be controlled by pollutants. The nature of harmful chemicals can be changed by many chemical reactions. Adequate research in this direction as well as finding cheap means is necessary.

9. Air pollution can be reduced by separating it from certain substances. Like filtered, filtered, dissolved, adsorbed. Some methods have been developed for all these, but inexpensive and easily available technology is needed in this direction.



In addition to the above measures, it is necessary to use locally available means. Today every country has rules and laws to control air pollution. In our country too, there are strict rules for industries to control air pollution. All these rules should be strictly followed, because with it the future of mankind is connected. If we want to cherish our future, then we have to control air pollution.

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